Four of the world`s five regions have established human rights protection systems. The objective of regional instruments is to articulate human rights norms and mechanisms at the regional level without diminishing the universality of human rights. With the development of regional systems, whether to stimulate the economy or for more historical or political reasons, they have also felt the need to articulate a regional commitment to human rights, often strengthening the mechanisms and guarantees of the United Nations system. Indeed, there are many examples where regional standards go beyond internationally agreed standards, one example being the innovative recognition by the African system of the vulnerability not only of refugees but also of internally displaced persons. Considering that adequate protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms to which everyone is entitled, whether economic, social and cultural or civil and political, requires that everyone has effective access to legal services provided by an independent legal profession, 28. Disciplinary proceedings against lawyers are brought before an impartial disciplinary commission appointed by the legal profession, before an independent statutory authority or before a court and are subject to independent judicial review. There are two different versions of the theory of interest, which correspond to the above-mentioned issue of the rule of rights. The powers raise another question. Many authors (e.g.

Hohfeld 1919, Hart 1973) have considered it a kind of right. By legal force, we mean the ability to make changes to the law or its application (as well as other conditions). As a general rule, of course, when granting a power, the legislature also grants the right to exercise it, but this is sometimes not the case, for example if the exercise of the right itself would constitute a felony or tort. In English law, for example, until a recent change in the law, a thief had the legal authority, in certain special circumstances, to transfer ownership of stolen property to a third party, even if he had committed a civil and possibly criminal fault. This seems to indicate that powers should not be considered rights themselves. Contemporary political philosophies that continue the classical liberal tradition of natural rights include libertarianism, anarcho-capitalism, and objectivism, and their canon includes the works of authors such as Robert Nozick, Ludwig von Mises, Ayn Rand,[50] and Murray Rothbard. [51] A libertarian view of inalienable rights is expounded in Morris and Linda Tannehill`s The Market for Liberty, which argues that a man is entitled to ownership of his life, and therefore of his property, because he has invested time (i.e., .part of his life), making it an extension of his life. However, when he uses violence against and to the detriment of another human being, he alienates the right to the part of his life necessary to pay his debt: „Rights are not inalienable, but only the owner of a right can alienate himself from that right – no one else can take away the rights of a human being.

[52] While lawyers` professional associations play an essential role in upholding professional and ethical standards, protecting their members from persecution and undue restrictions and violations, providing legal services to all who need them, and working with government and other institutions to advance the goals of justice and the public interest, human rights instruments are a testament to our latest understanding of what human dignity requires. These instruments are likely to always lag behind, as they respond to challenges that have already been recognized, rather than those that remain so institutionalized and rooted in our societies that we still do not recognize them as rights and rights violations. In the Council of Europe, the organisation`s standardisation work aims to propose new legal standards to the Committee of Ministers in order to respond to social measures in order to solve problems arising in member states in relation to matters within their competence. Such measures may include proposing new legislation or adapting existing standards. For example, the procedures of the European Court of Human Rights are evolving to ensure its effectiveness, how provisions on the abolition of the death penalty have been adopted and how new treaty instruments such as the Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings adopted in 2005 have emerged. In this sense, human rights instruments have always been revised and developed. Our understanding, jurisprudence and, most importantly, advocacy will continue to advance, attract and expand human rights. The fact that the provisions of human rights conventions and treaties are sometimes considered inferior to what we would sometimes expect should not be a reason to question what human rights represent as a hope for humanity. Human rights laws often fall short of what human rights defenders expect, but they also remain their most reliable support. First, should rights be analyzed only in terms of duties to others (with another condition), or should we also include other concepts such as permission, power, and immunity? Hohfeld believed that, strictly speaking, something was a legal claim only if it was consistent with an obligation to others, but he argued that the use of the law was often confusing because the reference really referred to one of the other terms. Thus, the law also sometimes said that X had a right if (1) he had A`s permission, (2) he had A`s legal authority, (3) Y had no legal authority to influence him. As at UN level, social and economic rights in Europe are regulated in a separate document.

The European Social Charter (revised) is a binding document covering the rights to safeguard the standard of living of people in Europe. The Charter was signed by 45 Member States and ratified by 30 in 2010. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) both entered into force in 1976 and are the main legally binding instruments of global application. Both covenants sought to extend the rights described in the UDHR and give them the force of law (within the framework of a treaty). Together with the UDHR and their respective Optional Protocols, they form the International Bill of Human Rights. Each of them provides for a different category of rights, although they also share concerns, for example with regard to non-discrimination. Both instruments have been widely ratified, with the ICESCR having 166 ratifications and 160 ratifications as of November 2010. Main human rights instruments and Council of Europe implementation mechanisms Minorities are not definitively defined in international human rights instruments, but are generally described in these instruments as having national or ethnic, religious or linguistic characteristics that differ from those of the majority population and that they wish to maintain. These are protected: constitutions will also vary depending on whether certain rights are „enshrined“ or not. Consecration may be absolute, in which case rights cannot be revoked or modified by any constitutional means (as is the case with some of the „fundamental rights“ of the German Constitution), or it may be relative and require only a more onerous procedure than normal legislation (as in the case of the United States Constitution). This is a different question from whether the criminal law can act to recognize and protect moral rights.

It seems possible to claim this, since moral rights can be protected not only by legal rights, but also by legal obligations towards others (without corresponding legal rights). For example, a legal system could create a criminal offence of harassment to protect a moral right to privacy without necessarily recognizing a legal right to privacy, that is, something that would serve as a positive reason for privacy protection in interpreting unclear rules or in developing laws.